who meaning in bengali

", Development Centre Studies The World Economy Historical Statistics: Historical Statistics, "The Long Globalization and Textile Producers in India", "Bangladesh: early history, 1000 B.C.–A.D. The rise of self-determination and Bengali nationalism movements in East Bengal, led by Mujibur Rahman, culminated in the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War against the Pakistani military junta. It is also located near China's southern landlocked region, including Yunnan and Tibet. 'Baṅgābda') is a luni-solar calendar used in the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent.A revised version of the calendar is the national and official calendar in Bangladesh and an earlier version of the calendar is followed in the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura and Assam. Alongside the predominant Bengali population resides a small Bishnupriya Manipuri, Khasia and other tribal minorities.[46]. [12] The resurgent Hindu Sena dynasty dethroned the Pala Empire in the 12th century, ending the reign of the last major Buddhist imperial power in the subcontinent.[9][70]. Bengal has an extremely rich heritage of dancing dating back to antiquity. The region is one of the largest rice producing areas in the world, with West Bengal being India's largest rice producer and Bangladesh being the world's fourth largest rice producer. The war caused millions of East Pakistani refugees to take shelter in India's Bengali state West Bengal, with Calcutta, the capital of West Bengal province, becoming the capital-in-exile of the Provisional Government of Bangladesh. Southeast Bengal is noted for its thalassocratic and seafaring heritage. [87][88], East Pakistan witnessed the rise of Bengali self determination calls led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and Maulana Bhashani in the 1960s. Southeast Bengal is considered a bridge to Southeast Asia and the northern parts of Arakan are also historically considered to be a part of it.[55]. Detailed relations between Bengali and related dialects and languages in eastern India in Sudhāṃśu Śekhara Tuṅga. [67], Ancient Bengal was considered a part of Magadha region, which was the cradle of Indian arts and sciences. Muslim rule introduced agrarian reform, a new calendar and Sufism. Calcutta was named the capital of British India in 1772. He was eventually succeeded by his army chief Hussain Muhammad Ershad. [28] The East India Company increased agriculture tax rates from 10% to up to 50%, which caused multiple famines such as the Great Bengal famine of 1770 which caused the death of 10 million Bengalis and the Bengal famine of 1943 which killed millions. Since then, Bangladesh has largely alternated between the premierships of Sheikh Hasina of the Awami League and Khaleda Zia of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party, as well as technocratic caretaker governments. North Bengal is divided into Terai and Dooars regions. Three stock exchanges are located in the region, including the Dhaka Stock Exchange, the Chittagong Stock Exchange and the Calcutta Stock Exchange. Most of the Bengal region lies in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta, but there are highlands in its north, northeast and southeast. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The Bengal tiger is the national animal of Bangladesh and India. The Chittagonian dialect of Bengali is prevalent in coastal areas of southeast Bengal. Calcutta was named the capital of British India in 1772. During the Mughal era, the most important center of cotton production was Bengal, particularly around its capital city of Dhaka, leading to muslin being called "daka" in distant markets such as Central Asia. [49] Bengal also had a large shipbuilding industry. This was opposed by the Prime Minister of Bengal, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, and nationalist leader Sarat Chandra Bose. [64][65][66] In vedic mythology the royal families of Magadha, Anga, Vanga, Suhma and Kalinga were all related and descended from one King. In Islamic literature, it is said to come from "Bang/Bung", a son of Hind (son of Hām who was a son of Noah) who colonised the area for the first time. [58][59] Archaeological evidence confirms that by the second millennium BCE, rice-cultivating communities inhabited the region. It is an eastern Indo-Aryan language and one of the easternmost branches of the Indo-European language family. Most of them speak Bengali, a language from the Indo-Aryan language family. The conflict ended after the Indian Armed Forces intervened on the side of Bangladeshi forces in the final two weeks of the war, which ended with the Surrender of Pakistan and the liberation of Dhaka on 16 December 1971. The presidency was run by a military-civil administration, including the Bengal Army, and had the world's sixth earliest railway network. Other religious groups include Buddhists (comprising around 1% of the population in Bangladesh) and Christians.[64]. Subsequent Muslim conquests helped spread Islam throughout the region. [107][note 3] The level of poverty in West Bengal is at 19.98%, while in Bangladesh it stands at 12.9%[108][109][110], West Bengal has one of the lowest total fertility rates in India. Bengali definition, a native or an inhabitant of Bengal; Bengalese. Bengal's trade and wealth impressed the Mughals so much that it was described as the Paradise of the Nations by the Mughal Emperors. Prominent contemporary Bengali writers in English include Amitav Ghosh, Tahmima Anam, Jhumpa Lahiri and Zia Haider Rahman among others. India and Bangladesh are the world's second and eighth most populous countries respectively. The state has a total area of 88,752 km2 (34,267 sq mi). The Pala Empire enjoyed relations with the Srivijaya Empire, the Tibetan Empire, and the Arab Abbasid Caliphate. West Bengal is on the eastern bottleneck of India, stretching from the Himalayas in the north to the Bay of Bengal in the south. Today, the country is one of the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world. Some Indian regions like Tripura, Shillong and the Barak Valley region of Bengali has greatly influenced other languages in the region, including Odia, Assamese, Chakma, Nepali [36] This is also mentioned in Ghulam Husain Salim's Riyaz-us-Salatin. [157] [37], Archaeologists have discovered remnants of a 4,000-year-old Chalcolithic civilisation in the greater Bengal region, and believe the finds are one of the earliest signs of settlement in the region. The population is divided between the region of Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura and Assam's Barak Valley. The country has a long shipbuilding tradition, dating back many centuries. The Lawachara National Park is a rainforest in northeastern Bangladesh. Many Bengalis died in the independence struggle and many were exiled in Cellular Jail, located in Andaman. There are four World Heritage Sites in the region, including the Sundarbans, the Somapura Mahavihara, the Mosque City of Bagerhat and the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway. [60][61] The National Anthem of Bangladesh, National Anthem of India and the National Song of India were first composed in the Bengali language. [102], Life expectancy is around 72.49 years for Bangladesh[104] and 70.2 for West Bengal. Wooden boats are made of timber such as Jarul (dipterocarpus turbinatus), sal (shorea robusta), sundari (heritiera fomes), and Burma teak (tectons grandis). The empire was founded with the election of Gopala as the emperor of Gauda in 750. Adina. Central Bengal refers to the Dhaka Division of Bangladesh. The first partition in 1905 divided the Bengal region in British India into two provinces for administrative and development purposes. Between 1905 and 1912, an abortive attempt was made to divide the province of Bengal into two zones, that included the short-lived province of Eastern Bengal and Assam based in Dacca and Shillong. Consequently, no identification documents are issued to char-dwellers who cannot benefit from health care, barely survive because of very poor sanitation and are prevented from emigrating to the mainland to find jobs when they have turned 14. The issue of Bengali settlement in the state from has been a contentious part of the Assam conflict.

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