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[The Estonian State Commission on Examination of the Policies of Repression [http://www.parliament.ee/public/Riigikogu/TheWhiteBook.pdf The White Book] , page 30] * It incentivised many Estonians, who had previously been rather sceptical about joining German army (between January 1943 and February 1944, about 4000 people, mostly male, over half of them below 24 years old, i.e. Deportations after 1944 were, however, much harder to document.Taagepera, Rein (1980). №390-138сс «О выселении с территории Литвы, Латвии и Эстонии кулаков с семьями, семей бандитов и националистов, находящихся на нелегальном положении, убитых при вооруженных столкновениях и осужденных, легализованных бандитов, продолжающих вести вражескую работу, и их семей, а также семей репрессированных пособников бандитов».] Compiled by Heiki Ahonen. June 2006. Arnold Meri was on trial for his part in the deportations.  Lieutenant General Pyotr Burmak, commander of the MGB Internal Troops, was in generally charge for the operation. 36243 Niederaula Républiques pour toujours. On October 30, 2002, Yury Karpov got an eight-year suspended sentence. Les expulsés comprenaient des personnes handicapées, des femmes enceintes, des nouveau-nés et des enfants séparés de leurs parents. , The Estonian International Commission for Investigation of Crimes Against Humanity was established by President Lennart Meri, who himself was a survivor of the 1941 deportation, in October 1998 to investigate crimes against humanity committed in Estonia or against Estonian citizens during the Soviet and Nazi occupation. * [http://linnamuuseum.tartu.ee/en/branches/kgb/deport.html Deportation] . Deportations were predominantly to Siberia and Kazakhstan by means of railroad cattle cars, without prior announcement, while deported were given few night hours at best to pack their belongings and separated from their families, usually also sent to the east. The youngest deportee was 1-day-old Virve Eliste from Hiiumaa island, who died a year later in Siberia; the oldest was 95-year-old Maria Raagel. Johannes Klaassepp (b. *Kuusk, Pearu. The commission held its first session in Tallinn in January 1999. GENOCIDE IN BALTIC BY SOVIET CHARGED; Envoys of Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia Call on U.S. to Urge U.N. Investigation, "The Supreme Soviet of the USSR unambiguously condemns the practice of forceful deportation of the entire nations as the most terrific felony, contradicting the basics of the international legislation and humanitarian nature of socialistic order. On July 301999, Mikhail Neverovsky (b. Preparations for carrying out mass deportations were begun not later than 1940 and were part of the total violence directed against the territories incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1940. The attempt failed. Dear user, this website is built on technology that is demanding for browsers with regard to downloading and running. In 1941 they were arrested. This second wave of the large-scale deportations was aimed to facilitate collectivization, which was implemented with great difficulties in the Baltic republics. [http://web-static.vm.ee/static/failid/128/Deportations_from_Estonia.pdf Deportation from Estonia in 1941 and 1949] . , which obligated the Ministry for State Security (MGB) to exile the kulaks and the people's enemies from the three Baltic Republics forever. In Estonia, as well as in other territories annexed by the Soviet Union in 1939–40, the first large-scale deportation of ordinary citizens was carried out by the local operational headquarters of the NKGB of the Estonian SSR under Boris Kumm (chairman), Andres Murro, Aleksei Shkurin, Veniamin Gulst, and Rudolf James, according to the top secret joint decree No 1299-526ss "Directive on the Deportation of the Socially Alien Element from the Baltic Republics, Western Ukraine, Western Belarus and Moldavia'" by the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) and the Council of People's Commissars of the Soviet Union of 14 May 1941. 91-103, 129-157, 179-215), Lilian Puust (pp. Outside the main waves, individuals and families were continually deported on smaller scale from the start of the first occupation in 1940 up to the Khrushchev Thaw of 1956 when destalinisation led Soviet Union to switch its tactic of terror from mass repressions to individual repressions. The Supreme Soviet of the Union of Soviet Socialistic Republics guarantees that violations of human rights and norms of humanity at the state level will never be repeated in our country. [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20021101/ai_n12664823 Stalin agent found guilty in Estonia] , The Independent, November 12002.]. Lieutenant General Pyotr Burmak, commander of the MGB Internal Troops, was in charge for the operation in general. As a result, by the end of April 1949, half of the remaining individual farmers in Estonia had joined kolkhozes. Deportation from Estonia to Russia. Only in 1956, during Khrushchev Thaw, were some survived deportees allowed to return to Estonia. Book 6. Cela inclut les expulsions soviétiques d'Estonie, que la Cour européenne des droits de l'homme a considérées comme des crimes contre l'humanité . During the collectivization period in the Baltic republics, on 29 January 1949, the Council of Ministers issued top secret decree No. De plus amples informations sont disponibles dans notre, LIVRAISON GRATUITE - SANS VALEUR MINIMALE - PAIEMENT SÉCURISÉ - GRANDE SÉLECTION - PETIT PRIX. A little over 10 percent of them were men of working age. , The European Parliament issued a resolution condemning crimes against humanity committed by all totalitarian and authoritarian regimes on 2 April 2009. Deportations after 1944 were, however, much harder to document. Also, Parliament calls for the proclamation of August 23 as Europe-wide Remembrance Day for the victims of all totalitarian and authoritarian regimes. Soviet acknowledgment of Stalin's deportations, Постановление ЦК ВКП(б) и СНК СССР от 14 мая 1941 г. за N 1299-526сс «Директива о выселении социально-чуждого элемента из республик Прибалтики, Западной Украины и Западной Белоруссии и Молдавии». On July 17, 1940, Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces Johan Laidoner (died in 1953 in Vladimir prison) and his family, and on July 30, 1940, President Konstantin Päts (died in 1956 in a psikhushka in Kalinin Oblast) and his family were deported to Penza and Ufa, respectively. On October 10, 2003, August Kolk (born 1924) and Pyotr Kisly (born 1921) were sentenced to eight years in prison with three years of probation. In Estonia, as well as in other territories annexed by the Soviet Union in 1939–1940, the first large-scale deportation of ordinary citizens was carried out by the local operational headquarters of the NKGB of the Estonian SSR under Boris Kumm (chairman), Andres Murro, Aleksei Shkurin, Veniamin Gulst and Rudolf James according to the top secret joint decree No 1299-526ss "Directive on the Deportation of the Socially Alien Element from the Baltic Republics, Western Ukraine, Western Belarus and Moldavia'" by the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) and the Council of People's Commissars of the Soviet Union of May 14, 1941. 1921) were sentenced to eight years in prison with three years of probation. * [http://web-static.vm.ee/static/failid/058/25_March_1949.pdf Estonia Today. Outside the main waves, individuals and families were continually deported on smaller scale from the start of the first occupation in 1940 up to the Khrushchev Thaw of 1956 when de-Stalinisation led Soviet Union to switch its tactic of terror from mass repressions to individual repressions. Fact Sheet, March 2005] , Press and Information Department, Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Combien coûte l'expédition? Des expulsions identiques ont été effectuées simultanément en Lettonie et en Lituanie . From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core, Soviet acknowledgment of Stalin's deportations, Постановление ЦК ВКП(б) и СНК СССР от 14 мая 1941 г. за N 1299-526сс «Директива о выселении социально-чуждого элемента из республик Прибалтики, Западной Украины и Западной Белоруссии и Молдавии». The procedure was established by the Serov Instructions. Tallinn: Kistler-Ritso Estonian Foundation, 2004. 1921) were sentenced to eight years in prison with three years of probation. 390–138ss [Постановление Совета Министров СССР от 29 января 1949 г. En 1995, après le rétablissement de l'indépendance de l'Estonie, le Riigikogu , le parlement de l'Estonie indépendante, a déclaré les expulsions officiellement un crime contre l'humanité , et quelques auteurs des expulsions de 1949, anciens officiers du MGB, ont été jugés et ont été condamnés pour Article 61-1 § 1 du code pénal depuis lors. So in the early morning of March 251949, the second major wave of deportation from the Baltic Republics, operation "Priboy" ("Breakers"), carried out by MGB began, which was planned to affect 30,000 in Estonia, including peasants. Survivorship and the Eastern exile: Estonian women's life narratives of the 1941 and 1949 Siberian deportations. Deportation in June 1941 & deportation in 1940-1953". For an example of such an ethnic foreign legion, see 20th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Estonian).Only in 1956, during Khrushchev Thaw, were some survived deportees allowed to return to Estonia. "Leiden Journal of International Law" 14, 757–787.] Le service estonien de sécurité intérieure a traduit en justice plusieurs anciens organisateurs de ces événements.
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